GLOSSARY OF ADVERTISING TERMS
You may find this list of advertising and market data terminology and definitions helpful when planning or placing advertising.
Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC)
ABC is a non-profit organization supported jointly by publishers, advertising agencies and advertisers with the purpose of verifying the circulation statements of member publishers.
ABC Report (Audit Bureau of Circulations Report)
For The Seattle Times, a full Audit report is done annually for the period ending March 31, while compilations of Publisher’s Statements from March and September are published twice a year. This differs from the FAS-FAX Report, which includes all U.S. daily papers, and covers either audits or publishers’ statement data.
Advertising Checking Bureau (ACB)
A profit-making organization specializing in the verification of co-op advertising and sending tearsheets to general or national advertisers.
Total number of individual advertisements.
A typesetter's measure; 1 inch = 14 agate lines.
The arrangement of text in a column (i.e. flush right, flush left, centered or justified).
Any visual image, such as a photo or drawing, intended for reproduction. Also referred to as a Rendering.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. An ASCII file contains only plain text and basic text-formatting characters such as spaces and carriage returns; it does not contain graphics or special character formatting. The ASCII character set of a microcomputer usually includes 256 characters or control codes. The most consistent ASCII characters are those that can be seen on the keyboard; they fall in the range from ASCII 32 to 127 and are called "plain ASCII." A "plain ASCII" can be read by just about any program.
Materials, other than type, prepared for reproduction. Photographs, illustrations and diagrams are examples.
The number of people or households (often adults 18+) who are exposed to a medium or advertising message.
The average number of times a household or person is exposed to an advertising message within a specific period of time.
Average Quarter Hour
A broadcast term that reflects the number of people (of any age) listening or viewing during a typical 15-minute period.
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A group of individuals or items used as a standard of reference because their characteristics fall under a certain set of specifications; for example, adults age 25 to 54. This number will equal 100 percent.
- Three or more advertisers sharing a common theme or geographic location placed together under a common headline.
- A display ad on a Web site.
An abbreviation for boldface type.
A computerized image made up of dots. Images are "mapped" directly from corresponding bits in memory (hence the name). Also referred to as paint format.
In graphics programs, pixel editing/color control and automatic bitmap tracing.
When the printed image extends beyond the finished size into the trim area. Or when colors are overlapped to guarantee adequate printed area, should the printing misregister.
The main text of an ad that excludes headlines, subheads, etc.
Earliest Sunday edition, printed Friday evening for early Saturday distribution to retail outlets. At The Seattle Times, this product is called the Advance Edition.
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Camera Ready or Page Ready
Pasted-up copy and art that requires no additional work before being photographed for plate-making.
In print, the number of copies sold or distributed, as contrasted with readership, which includes the number of readers regardless of how they obtained the newspaper.
Pre-drawn images that are copyright free and available to the public for use in ads, etc.
A method of representing color based on the standard printing ink colors of cyan, magenta, yellow and black. Scanners and video monitors deal in RGB (Red-Green-Blue).
CSA (Consolidated Statistical Area)
As defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, the Seattle-Tacoma-Olympia CSA includes King, Snohomish, Island, Kitsap, Mason, Pierce, Skagit and Thurston counties.
In graphics programs - of grayscale and of process colors - adjust contrast and brightness, adjust color balance, posterize and invert.
A proof of combined and registered negatives printed in proper colors.
A full-color negative image on a transparent support film.
The process of optically "breaking apart" colors in the original into four separate black-and-white photographic records, each of which is a map detailing how much each of the four inks (black, cyan, magenta and yellow) are needed to print a color reproduction.
The order in which inks must be placed on the paper during the printing process. Usually cyan, magenta, yellow and black, but this ordering may vary with the color system.
Generally, a one or two-color combination or ink in varying densities applied over type or subject to attract attention. Could be a full tint when the black is eliminated to allow the color to print.
A full-color positive image on a transparent support film. Also referred to as a chrome.
Advertising in which two or more advertisers pool funds or in which a national manufacturer pays all or part of the costs of advertising designed to sell his product in a local store.
Unit of measure on which an ad's size is determined. A standard page is composed of six columns in width. At The Seattle Times one column measures 21/16 inches wide. A classified page is composed of 10 columns. One column measures 11/4 inches wide.
An ad that measures one column wide and one inch high is said to measure one column inch. An ad's total column inches are determined by multiplying its columns in width by its inches in height. For example, an ad 2 columns wide and 5 inches high is 10 column inches.
The demographic makeup of an audience.
An agreement under which an advertiser contracts to use a minimum amount of advertising for a stated period of time.
The amount of separation of tones in a photograph. The quantitative difference between light and dark.
Any furnished material (typewritten manuscript, pictures, artwork, etc.) to be used in the production of printing.
Cost Per Point
A measurement of cost-effectiveness; cost of reaching one percent of a target audience.
CPM (Cost Per Thousand)
A figure used in comparing or evaluating cost efficiency of media schedules; it is determined by dividing the cost of the ad spot by the number of people in the particular audience and multiplying it by 1,000.
To trim a photo or illustration. Cropping is used to fit a specific area, enhance a photo's features or eliminate the non-essential parts of a photograph.
The process by which two or more factors (demographics, media usage, or shopping habits) are interrelated for purposes of comparison.
This is the cumulative audience. The number of different people or households exposed at least once to a media schedule or vehicle over a specified period of time, usually one week.
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Daily (or weekday)
A newspaper published at least five consecutive days of the week.
The final date for accepting advertising materials to meet a publication or broadcast schedule. Also referred to as closing time, final acceptance time, or placement of schedule time.
A specific population characteristic such as age, income, gender, occupation, etc.
Data gathered, researched and used to identify various consumer market segments.
Difference in the degree of darkness between the lightest and darkest tones of a piece of artwork.
Typographical ornaments such as bullets, arrows and check marks, usually used for design emphasis within text.
Known also as "slip sheet" or "fly sheet." Two pages, back to back, inside a newspaper section, that are not connected to two more pages.
"Box" ads appearing anywhere in the newspaper except within the classified single column linear ads. Usually contain artwork in addition to text copy.
The text as it appears on the screen or in printout with field tags and file markers invisible. Hypertext links are visible because they are used to "jump" between related sections of the text.
A typeface used to attract attention in ads.
A technique for altering the values of adjacent dots or pixels to create the effect of intermediate values. In printing color images or displaying color on a computer screen, dithering refers to the technique of making different colors of adjacent dots or pixels to give the illusion of a third color; for example, a printed field of alternating cyan and yellow dots appears to be green. Dithering can give the effect of shades of gray on a black-and-white display or the effect of more colors on a color display.
DMA (Designated Market Area)
As defined by Nielsen as a broadcast signal range, the Seattle-Tacoma DMA includes King, Snohomish, Chelan, Clallam, Douglas, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Thurston and Whatcom counties.
The individual element of a halftone.
A gain (or loss) in the halftone dot caused by ink bleeding or spreading as it is absorbed by the paper. The result is darker or muddier printed images.
Dots Per Inch (DPI)
A measure of the resolution of a screen image or printed page. Dots are also known as pixels. The Macintosh screen displays 72 dpi, the LaserWriter printer prints 300 dpi, and a photo imagesetter can print 2,540 dpi or more.
A two-page editorial or advertisement which extends over the center spread of a section or publication. It is the double-page, or centerfold, of a section. There is only one double truck in a section.
Abbreviation for dots per inch; a measure of resolution.
The number or percent of people in one media vehicle's audience also exposed to another media vehicle.
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Extended Market Coverage (also known as Total Market Coverage). Refers to distribution of an advertising piece to both subscribers and non-subscribers of the newspaper.
A dash equal to the width of a letter M of the point size of a particular font.
EPSF (Encapsulated PostScript File)
An alternative picture file format supported by Adobe Systems and third-party developers. It allows PostScript data to be stored/edited and is easy to transfer between Macintosh, MS-DOS and other systems. Will output only to PostScript devices, not to a display screen. Also referred to as EPS files.
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The formal, stylized name of the newspaper as it appears at the top of the front page.
A printed advertising booklet that is trimmed and bound. Its dimensions are about half the size of a tabloid.
Reversing the direction. For example, if a photo or piece of artwork has an arrow which is pointing in a particular direction and you turn that piece of paper over so it is facing the other direction, it has been flopped.
Align text evenly with a particular margin (flush right or flush left).
A moderated discussion group formulated generally on a demographic basis to determine opinions on products or services through panel questioning. Important for new product introductions and for positioning purposes. Focus groups are a form of "qualitative" research.
Page numbers which appear on each page of the newspaper.
Complete assortment of letters, figures, punctuation marks and symbols in a particular type.
In graphics programs, process colors, tints per graduated fill. Linear, accelerating and decelerating distribution of colors.
Full-color reproduction method which adds a black ink to the three process-color inks, increasing contrast and detail.
Free standing insert. An advertising supplement provided by the advertiser for insertion in the newspaper.
Use of all three primary pigments plus black in one advertisement or illustration on a newspaper page. An ad containing cyan, magenta, yellow and black is said to be full-color.
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Combining several transparencies on one carrier sheet to make one separation, rather than several separations.
Primary advertising rate for The Seattle Times. Sometimes referred to as the "National Rate."
An original photograph. Sometimes called a Contone.
The uneven texture in a developed photographic emulsion, resulting from the clumping of silver grains, and observed in a negative, print or transparency. Graininess is more pronounced with faster films, increased density in the negative and the degree of enlargement.
A fundamental requirement of color pictures: neutrals in the scene must be neutral in the reproduction. To obtain a neutral scale (gray balance) in the reproduction, with no apparent dominant hue, one must print the correct amounts of cyan, magenta and yellow inks in each step of the scale. Black ink is not used in obtaining gray balance. When gray balance is achieved, the hues of most of the other colors in the picture will be correct.
The sum of all exposures to an advertising message in a given advertising schedule.
GRP (Gross Rating Point)
The sum of the ratings of the individual media buys that make up an advertising schedule. It is calculated as the number of spots multiplied by the average rating.
The blank space or inner margin where two newspaper pages come together.
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Process that reproduces tone scale in a photograph by creating many tiny dots on a printing plate. Because laser printers and printing presses cannot produce gray, the reproduction of a continuous tone image, such as a photograph, is processed through a screen that converts the image into dots of various sizes to provide the illusion of gray.
The process that converts a continuous-tone image into dots of various size.
A matching of a search or request. In Internet terms, a hit represents a page impression.
HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value)
Abbreviation for hue, saturation and value--a color model used in some graphics programs. HSV must be translated to another model for color printing or forming screen colors.
H.U.T. (Households Using Television)
A term referring to the total number of TV households using their TV sets during a given time period.
Internet: Direct searching based on term occurrences in the text; the retrieval system will find other text units containing the same term(s). A second form is based on hypertext links that have been inserted in the text. These links can draw the user's attention to related sections even if the sections do not share the same terms and would not be found on the basis of term occurrences.
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A drawing or photograph used for publication.
A percentage that relates numbers to a base. It is used to demonstrate quickly what is above average (101 or greater), average (100) and below average (99 or less) of a given demographic or consumer behavior.
An advertising supplement supplied by the advertiser for insertion in the newspaper.
A form that provides descriptive documentation and authorization for a specific advertising schedule. Written instruction from an agency or advertiser telling us when an ad is to run, its size, and other essentials.
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To adjust space between certain type characters to eliminate unwanted space. (e.g. AV, MW, etc.)
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A sketch or computer generated sheet which gives the general appearance of the finished printed product or ad, indicating the relationship between text and illustration.
Pronounced "ledding." The amount of white space between lines of type. Measured from baseline to baseline.
A form of printing in which the raised surfaces of a printing plate are inked and the inked image is impressed directly on the paper.
Copy that can be reproduced without using a screen, such as a pen and ink drawing.
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Mailroom (Packaging & Assembly)
The area where the printed newspapers are inserted, bundled, wrapped and sent by conveyor to the loading dock and put on trucks for delivery.
Rerunning a corrected ad free for an advertiser because an error was made in the original ad which invalidated its sales message.
The area between the edge of the printed area and the edge of the sheet on which it is printed.
To mark a layout or sheet of copy, indicating the choice of typeface, typesize, etc.
On the editorial page, listing of newspaper's name, place and date of publication, and top officials of the company. Often mistakenly used to refer to the nameplate on the top of the front page.
3M brand name for color proofs created from film negatives.
MD (Metropolitan Division)
The Seattle-Bellevue-Everett MD, an area classified by the U.S. Census Bureau, is made up of King and Snohomish counties.
A summation of a set of values, divided by the number of cases. The arithmetic mean is commonly referred to as the average.
Paste-up on which some or all elements are camera-ready.
The middle value of a set of values, where half of the measured group is above this value and half is below.
Mock Double Truck
A two page editorial or advertisement that does not include the gutter.
The value that occurs most often.
Undesirable pattern that occurs when two or more halftone screen patterns are photocopied at incorrect angles and then printed one over another.
MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area)
The Seattle-Tacoma- Bellevue MSA is one of 363 MSA markets defined by the U.S. Census Bureau and includes King, Pierce and Snohomish counties. The MSA is one type of a Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA).
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Newspaper Association of America.
See General Rate.
NDM (Newspaper Designated Market)
Defined by The Seattle Times Company as its core subscriber market, the NDM boundaries are South Everett to the north, King/Pierce county line to the south, Bainbridge Island to the west, and North Bend to the east.
The number of different (unduplicated) persons or households exposed to a specific media vehicle or schedule at least once, usually measured over a specific period of time.
Amount of space for news, features, photographs and graphics.
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A form of printing in which the ink is transferred from a planographic printing plate (a plate having no raised surfaces) to a rubber blanket and subsequently to the paper. Also referred to as lithography.
A non-contract advertising rate.
The dots per inch (dpi) of the output device (high-end imagesetters can support various resolutions). The higher the screen frequency, the higher is the output resolution required to maintain 256 shades of gray.
Printing one subtractive primary ink over another, producing positive images on a screen background.
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Packaging and Assembly
See Camera Ready
The process of producing camera-ready pages entirely on a computer, minimizing or eliminating the need for paste-up.
A reader of a publication who did not actually purchase the publication.
The process of positioning type and artwork on a grid sheet. The grid sheet is the actual size of the paper.
Of, by, or for each individual - literally counted "by head."
See 1 Point.
An ad that had already been published and now is to be digitally or manually moved to a new page for repeat publication.
Stands for picture element; the smallest dot you can draw on the screen. A pixel is also a location in video memory that corresponds to a point on the graphics screen when the viewing window includes that location. In a monochrome display, each pixel can be either black or white, so it can be represented by a bit; thus, the display is said to be a bit map. In color or grayscale displays, several bits in RAM may represent the image. In a high-resolution display, each pixel is represented by either two or four bits. Thus, the display is a pixel map instead of a bit map.
1/72 of an inch. 1 Pica = 12 points. 6 Picas = 1"
- News sections of the paper that are printed in advance, due to press capacity limitations.
- See Insert
Reproduction of original material which is prepared and run on a production or proofing press using the inks and papers similar to those to be used in the final reproduction.
Data collected through a series of telephone, Internet, mail or personal interview surveys of respondents.
Process Blue (Cyan)
One of the four inks used in process color printing. Preferred name: "Cyan ink."
In printing, it is the process of applying or separating the three secondary subtractive colors or Cyan, Magenta, Yellow (and black for detail) in any combination in order to simulate all colors in the visual spectrum.
Process Red (Magenta)
One of the four inks used in process color printing. Preferred name: "Magenta ink."
One of the four inks used in process color printing.
Progressive Proofs (Progs)
A series of color proofs showing each single color, then each color in combination with each other color, and finally a four-color simulation.
The extension of data derived from a scientifically sampled survey to a total population or universe.
A reproduction of news or advertising made to permit checking the accuracy or completeness of the work.
A research study initiated by a sponsor who then has private ownership of the results.
The chief executive and often the owner of a newspaper or other publishing enterprise.
Advertiser sends materials and a layout with a request for the ad to be built.
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The percentage of individuals or homes exposed to a particular media vehicle.
The number or percent of a potential audience exposed to an ad or media vehicle one or more times within a given period.
Readers Per Copy
The average number of readers of one copy of a magazine or newspaper.
The people that read an issue of a publication, regardless of how they obtain the copy.
Crosses or other devices applied to original copy prior to photography. Used for positioning negatives in register or for register of two or more colors in process printing.
In printing, correct positioning of one color ink over another color.
The degree of clarity of a display or printer image. Resolution is usually specified in dots per inch (DPI). The higher the resolution, or the greater the number of DPI, the sharper the image. For film recorders, resolution usually refers to the number of lines that make up the entire screen on a display or on film. The resolution of film recorders ranges from the low PC standard (200 lines for CGA to 350 lines for EGA) up to 10,000 lines.
Methods of altering original artwork or photography to make corrections, improve or change the character of the image.
Design method in which the background is inked (colored) rather than the copy. Usually a white image (type or illustration) on a black or screened background.
Run of paper. News or ads running in the main body of the newspaper, as opposed to being inserted.
ROP (Run of Paper) Color
Process color that is printed in a newspaper during the regular pressrun for that edition, and not preprinted.
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Anything that isn't a complete census is selected to be representative of a population that can be questioned or observed and thereby provide estimates of the characteristics, opinions and behavior of the entire population.
The number of people interviewed in a study.
The difference between results from the sample and the results that might be obtained from a complete census, inherent in the statistical processes of sampling. This margin of error does not imply a mistake, for probability sample error is calculable, based on sample size and method. Sampling error is also called variance, tolerance factor, or standard deviation.
A clean, modern typeface such as Swiss, Helvetica or Geometric containing no serifs. See Serif.
Standard Advertising Units. A standardized measure of advertising space within a newspaper page. Used throughout the United States so that an advertiser or ad agency can place advertising with any newspaper and know the exact size and cost of the ads.
A leading provider of syndicated market research. Scarborough provides an extensive look at lifestyle trends, demographics, shopping and purchasing behavior at major retail chains, and media usage patterns.
- The grid of lines on the contact screen or glass plate through which continuous-tone copy is photographed, breaking it into halftone dots for newspaper reproduction. Screens are designated by number of lines per inch.
- A tone defined as a percentage of a solid color; used as a background to accent an area of an ad.
Information that already exists collected for purposes other than the present one.
The short, perpendicular strokes that appear on the stems and tails of characters in the more traditional typefaces such as Bodoni, Garamond, etc.
The percent of individuals or homes using TV or radio who are tuned to a given program at a specific time.
Charges resulting from the recalculation of an advertiser's rate after failing to fulfill contract stipulations.
A publication purchased by means other than subscription, such as from a news rack or at a grocery store.
Also known as a "comics wrap." Two 13 x 20 full-pages of advertising printed on a single sheet, front and back. It is folded to "wrap" the outside of the Sunday comics section.
An original creation, whether sold or unsold. It must have a new, original design, with original art, copy or headline.
In printing, the application of one or more "inks" to enhance certain areas of the subject. Most spot colors can be simulated with process inks during printing (i.e. PanTone, TruMatch, etc.).
Standard Rate & Data Service (SRDS)
A company charged with creating a directory of all newspapers containing information about markets, rates and personnel.
Advertising space scheduled to run within a guaranteed window of time for a substantial discount off the open rate.
Proofreader's mark written in the margins specifying that the copy marked for correction should remain as it was. Let it stand.
The process of arranging negatives (or positives) in their proper positions on a flat prior to platemaking. Can be a mechanical or electronic process.
A study initiated by a research supplier to which subscriptions are sold.
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A newspaper or section of the newspaper which is half or less than half the dimension of a standard newspaper format in size.
Tag Image File Format (TIFF)
A file format for graphics developed by Aldus, Adobe and Apple that is particularly suited for representing scanned images and other large bitmaps. The original TIFF saved only black-and-white images in uncompressed forms. Newer versions support color and compression. TIFF is a neutral format designed for compatibility with both Macintosh and MS-DOS applications.
A complete page (or portion of a page) of the newspaper sent to an advertiser to verify publication of his/her ad.
To switch the position of two elements such as letters, words, copy blocks or artwork.
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This is the word used when a picture of an ad is reproduced on photographic paper.
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Sections of the newspaper that contain ads and/or news designated for specific geographic areas. The zoned content appears in the newspaper only in that zone. The Seattle Times zones advertising content (by East, South, North and Metro) in Monday NW Life, Wednesday and Thursday Local News and Ticket on Friday.
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